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EV Charger Introduction

This article is an introduction to the different types and speeds of EV chargers as applicable to New Zealand. It will consider the different types of EVs and Chargers (EVSEs) available and relates the power to a domestic heater.  

For this we will consider 3 different EVs, with imported Nissan Leafs being most popular in New Zealand, The Renault Zoe with the best AC charger, but no Rapid Charger compatibility, and a Tesla Model S with a large battery. 

EVs for Comparison

Nissan LEAF

Renault Zoe

Tesla Model S

24kWh or 30kWh battery

15kW / 100km

Range: 135km

# in NZ 4245

41 kWh battery

15kW / 100km

Range: 250km

# in NZ 83

75kWh or 100 kWh battery

20kW / 100km

Range: 400km to 500km

# in NZ 260

Connectors & Chargers

AC Charging

DC Rapid Charging

Type 1 (J1772)

Single Phase

7.2kW Max

Japan / US


50 to 500 kW Max

Japan / US

Type 2

Single Phase

7.2kW Max

3 Phase

22kW Max

Europe / NZ / AU

CCS Type 2

Combined Charging System

50kW Max

Europe / NZ / AU

For more information on connectors – please see our connectors article. 

Charger Types

Mode 2 Mode 3 Mode 4

AC Single Phase

Plug into wall

8A, 1.8kW Max


AC Single or 3 Phase

Hard wired Wall Mount

32A 7.2kW Single Phase

32A 22kW 3Phase

Rapid DC

Floor Mount


What about Mode 1? Mode 1 is simply an extension cable and is only suitable for low capacity  E-bikes, scooters etc as there is no safety protection features included. 

See more information on charger modes in this article.

EVSE Mode Comparison





Plug In




●Very slow charge

●Can’t use an extension cord, must have a dedicated 3-pin outlet at a prescribed height and location




●Available Charge Rate >= Most EVs


●Not Portable

●Hard-wired by electrician


Rapid DC


●Rapid DC Charging

●Very expensive

●Can reduce battery life

●Needs strong grid connection

●Not supported by all EVs

How Fast does an EV Charge?

The following factors determine the speed to charge an EV

  • Battery size – Bigger takes longer
  • Battery health and age
  • Battery charge level
    • Cell balancing reduces charge rate
    • Generally takes longer to charge from 80% to 100%
  • EV’s onboard AC charger
  • EV’s onboard DC charger
  • Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)’s Power Supply
    • Mode
    • Single or 3 Phase AC power
    • Load Sharing

See our article about for more information about charging speeds.


3.6kW Single Phase AC

50kW DC Rapid Charge


7.2kW Single Phase AC

22kW 3 Phase AC

No DC Rapid Charge

Plug in Chargers – Mode 2

Electric Heater

2300W 2.3kW on High

1300W 1.3kW on Low

Run the heater for 1 hour on low = 1.3kWh.

Plug in Charger

Max 8A, 1.8kW

Charge an EV for 1 hour

= 1.8kWh

= 10km Range

Nissan LEAF

24kWh or 30 kWh battery

80% charge at 1.8kW

10 hours for 24kWh battery.

Wall Chargers – Mode 3 Single Phase

Our JuiceBox 40 is a Mode 2 single phase EVSE.

JuiceBox 40

Electric Heater

 3x 2.3kW on High

Run 3 heaters on high for 1 hour = 7.2kWh.

AC Wall Charger

Max 32A, 7.2kW

Charge an EV for 1 hour

= 7.2kWh

= 45km Range

Nissan LEAF

80% charge at 3.6kW (Limited by LEAF) Except some UK LEAFs 7.2kW

5.5 hours for 24kW battery.

Renault Zoe

Max charge rate 7.2kW

4.5 hours

Tesla S

Max Charge rate 11kW

9 hours (100kWh battery)


Wall Chargers – Mode 3 Three Phase

Our JuiceBox 32 is a Mode 2 Three Phase EVSE. (It also supports single phase installation if required). 

Electric Heater

 9x 2.3kW on High

Run 9 heaters on high for 1 hour = 22kWh.

AC Wall Charger

Max 32A, 22kW

Charge an EV for 1 hour

= 22kWh

= 140km Range

Nissan LEAF

80% charge at 3.6kW Single Phase (Limited by LEAF)

5.5 hours for 24kW battery. 

Renault Zoe

Max Charge rate 22kW

2 hours for 80% Charge

Tesla S

Max Charge rate 11kW

9 hours (100kWh battery)

DC Rapid Chargers – Mode 4

Electric Heater

22x 2.3kW on High

Run 22 heaters on high for 1 hour = 50kWh.

DC  Charger

Max 50kW

Charge an EV for 1 hour

= 50kWh

= 300km Range

Nissan LEAF

Max Charge rate 50kW

80% charge is 25 mins for 24kW battery.

Renault Zoe

Not Supported

Tesla S

Max Charge rate 50kW

1 hour 10 mins for 75kW battery

Technical Considerations

Most homes have single phase power so a Mode 2 charger is suitable for charging one EV. If a home has more than one EV, load sharing will be required. 

Install with 3 phase power where available for future proofing. Users want bigger batteries for more range which will drive need for faster chargers.

Not just power

  • WiFi / Network access for EVSEs (Network and cellular reception can be poor in carparks). There could be costs of network connections, or wiring LAN connections to EVSEs.
  • If network goes down what happens? JuiceBoxes default to a safe operating current.
  • If EVSE has RFID tokens – replace lost tokens, setup etc. How easy will this be for unit holders and managers?
  • User requirements for cost effective quick charging.
  • Compatibility between EVSE and EVs

Other Introductory Articles

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